Computer Security: Principles and Practice Chapter 14 – IT Security

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Computer Security: Principles and Practice Chapter 14 – IT Security Management and Risk Assessment First Edition by William Stallings and Lawrie Brown Lecture slides by Lawrie Brown 1

Overview security requirements means asking – – – what assets do we need to protect? how are those assets threatened? what can we do to counter those threats? IT security management answers these – – – determining security objectives and risk profile perform security risk assessment of assets select, implement, monitor controls 2

IT Security Management IT Security Management: a process used to achieve and maintain appropriate levels of confidentiality, integrity, availability, accountability, authenticity and reliability. IT security management functions include: organizational IT security objectives, strategies and policies determining organizational IT security requirements identifying and analyzing security threats to IT assets identifying and analyzing risks specifying appropriate safeguards monitoring the implementation and operation of safeguards developing and implement a security awareness program detecting and reacting to incidents 3

ISO 27000 Security Standards ISO27000 ISO27001 ISO27002 (ISO17799) ISO27003 ISO27004 ISO27005 ISO13335 a proposed standard which will define the vocabulary and definitions used in the 27000 family of standards. defines the information security management system specification and requirements against which organizations are formally certified. It replaces the older Australian and British national standards AS7799.2 and BS7799.2. currently published and better known as ISO17799, this standard specifies a code of practice detailing a comprehensive set of information security control objectives and a menu of best-practice security controls. It replaces the older Australian and British national standards AS7799.1 and BS7799.1. a proposed standard containing implementation guidance on the use of the 27000 series of standards following the “Plan-Do-Check-Act” process quality cycle. Publication is proposed for late 2008. a draft standard on information security management measurement to help organizations measure and report the effectiveness of their information security management systems. It will address both the security management processes and controls. Publication is proposed for 2007. a proposed standard on information security risk management. It will replace the recently released British national standard BS7799.3. Publication is proposed for 2008/9. provides guidance on the management of IT security. This standard comprises a number of parts. Part 1 defines concepts and models for information and communications technology security management. Part 2, currently in draft, will provide operational guidance on ICT security. These replace the older series of 5 technical reports ISO/IEC TR 13335 parts 1-5. 4

IT Security Managemen t Process 5

Plan - Do - Check – Act (Deming Cycle) take corrective and preventative actions (based on audits) establish policy; define objectives and processes assess and measure and report results implement and operate policy, controls, processes 6

Organizational Context and Security Policy first examine organization’s IT security: – – – objectives - wanted IT security outcomes strategies - how to meet objectives policies - identify what needs to be done maintained and updated regularly – – using periodic security reviews reflect changing technical/risk environments 7

Security Policy: Topics to Cover needs to address: – – – – – – – – – – – scope and purpose including relation of objectives to business, legal, regulatory requirements IT security requirements assignment of responsibilities risk management approach security awareness and training general personnel issues and any legal sanctions integration of security into systems development information classification scheme contingency and business continuity planning incident detection and handling processes how when policy reviewed, and change control to it 8

Management Support IT security policy must be supported by senior management need IT security officer – – – to provide consistent overall supervision manage process handle incidents large organizations needs IT security officers on major projects/teams – manage process within their areas 9

Security Risk Assessment critical component of process – ideally examine every asset vs risk – else may have vulnerabilities or waste money not feasible in practice choose one of possible alternatives based on organization’s resources and risk profile – – – – baseline informal formal combined 10

Baseline Approach use “industry best practice” – – – easy, cheap, can be replicated but gives no special consideration to org may give too much or too little security implement safeguards against most common threats baseline recommendations and checklist documents available from various bodies alone only suitable for small organizations 11

Informal Approach conduct informal, pragmatic risk analysis on organization’s IT systems exploits knowledge and expertise of analyst fairly quick and cheap does address some org specific issues some risks may be incorrectly assessed skewed by analysts views, varies over time suitable for small to medium sized orgs 12

Detailed Risk Analysis most comprehensive alternative assess using formal structured process – – – with a number of stages identify likelihood of risk and consequences hence have confidence controls appropriate costly and slow, requires expert analysts may be a legal requirement to use suitable for large organizations with IT systems critical to their business objectives 13

Combined Approach combines elements of other approaches – – – – initial baseline on all systems informal analysis to identify critical risks formal assessment on these systems iterated and extended over time better use of time and money resources better security earlier that evolves may miss some risks early recommended alternative for most orgs 14

Detailed Risk Analysis Process 15

Establish Context determine broad risk exposure of org – – specify organization’s risk appetite set boundaries of risk assessment – related to wider political/social environment legal and regulatory constraints partly on risk assessment approach used decide on risk assessment criteria used 16

Asset Identification identify assets – – – – “anything which needs to be protected” of value to organization to meet its objectives tangible or intangible in practice try to identify significant assets draw on expertise of people in relevant areas of organization to identify key assets – – identify and interview such personnel see checklists in various standards 17

Terminology asset: anything that has value to the organization threat: a potential cause of an unwanted incident which may result in harm to a system or organization vulnerability: a weakness in an asset or group of assets which can be exploited by a threat risk: the potential that a given threat will exploit vulnerabilities of an asset or group of assets to cause loss or damage to the assets. 18

Threat Identification to identify threats or risks to assets asK – – threats are anything that hinders or prevents an asset providing appropriate levels of the key security services: – who or what could cause it harm? how could this occur? confidentiality, integrity, availability, accountability, authenticity and reliability assets may have multiple threats 19

Threat Sources threats may be – – should consider human attackers – – – – – natural “acts of god” man-made and either accidental or deliberate motivation capability resources probability of attack deterrence any previous history of attack on org 20

Threat Identification depends on risk assessors experience uses variety of sources – – – – natural threat chance from insurance stats lists of potential threats in standards, IT security surveys, info from governments tailored to organization’s environment and any vulnerabilities in its IT systems 21

Vulnerability Identification identify exploitable flaws or weaknesses in organization’s IT systems or processes hence determine applicability and significance of threat to organization need combination of threat and vulnerability to create a risk to an asset again can use lists of potential vulnerabilities in standards etc 22

Analyze Risks specify likelihood of occurrence of each identified threat to asset given existing controls – management, operational, technical processes and procedures to reduce exposure of org to some risks specify consequence should threat occur hence derive overall risk rating for each threat risk probability threat occurs x cost to organization in practice very hard to determine exactly use qualitative not quantitative, ratings for each aim to order resulting risks in order to treat them 23

Determine Likelihood Rating Likelihood Description 1 Rare 2 Unlikely 3 Possible 4 Likely 5 Almost Certain Expanded Definition May occur only in exceptional circumstances and may deemed as “unlucky” or very unlikely. Could occur at some time but not expected given current controls, circumstances, and recent events. Might occur at some time, but just as likely as not. It may be difficult to control its occurrence due to external influences. Will probably occur in some circumstance and one should not be surprised if it occurred. Is expected to occur in most circumstances and certainly sooner or later. 24

Determine Consequence Rating Consequence Insignificant 1 2 Minor 3 Moderate 4 Major 5 Catastrophic 6 Doomsday Expanded Definition Generally a result of a minor security breach in a single area. Impact is likely to last less than several days and requires only minor expenditure to rectify. Result of a security breach in one or two areas. Impact is likely to last less than a week, but can be dealt with at the segment or project level without management intervention. Can generally be rectified within project or team resources. Limited systemic (and possibly ongoing) security breaches. Impact is likely to last up to 2 weeks and generally requires management intervention. Will have ongoing compliance costs to overcome. Ongoing systemic security breach. Impact will likely last 4-8 weeks and require significant management intervention and resources to overcome, and compliance costs are expected to be substantial. Loss of business or organizational outcomes is possible, but not expected, especially if this is a once off. Major systemic security breach. Impact will last for 3 months or more and senior management will be required to intervene for the duration of the event to overcome shortcomings. Compliance costs are expected to be very substantial. Substantial public or political debate about, and loss of confidence in, the organization is likely. Possible criminal or disciplinary action is likely. Multiple instances of major systemic security breaches. Impact duration cannot be determined and senior management will be required to place the company under voluntary administration or other form of major restructuring. Criminal proceedings against senior management is expected, and substantial loss of business and failure to meet organizational objectives is unavoidable. 25

Determine Resultant Risk Consequences Likelihood Doomsday Catastrophic Major Almost Certain Likely Possible Unlikely Rare Moderate Minor Insignificant E E E E H H E E E E E E E H E E H H H H M M H M L L M L L L Risk Level Description Extreme (E) Will require detailed esearch r and management planning at an executive/director level. Ongoing planning and monitoring will be required with regular reviews. Substantial adjustment of controls to manage the risk are expected, with costs possibly exceeding original forecasts. High (H) Requires management attention, but management and planning can be left to senior project or team leaders. Ongoing planning and monitoring with regular reviews are likely, though adjustment of controls are likely to be met from within existing resources Medium (M) Can be managed by existing specific monitoring and response procedures. Management by employees is suitable with appropriate monitoring and reviews. Low (L) Can be managed through routine procedures. 26

Document in Risk Register and Evaluate Risks Asset Internet Router Destruction of Data Center Threat/ Vulnerability Outside Hacker attack Accidental Fire or Flood Existing Controls Admin password only None (no disaster recovery plan) Likelihood Consequence Possible Unlikely 27 Risk Priority Moderate Level of Risk High Major High 2 1

Risk Treatment 28

Risk Treatment Alternatives risk acceptance: accept risk (perhaps because of excessive cost of risk treatment) risk avoidance: do not proceed with the activity that causes the risk (loss of convenience) risk transfer: buy insurance; outsource reduce consequence: modify the uses of an asset to reduce risk impact (e.g., offsite backup) reduce likelihood: implement suitable controls 29

Case Study: Silver Star Mines fictional operation of global mining company large IT infrastructure – – – both common and specific software some directly relates to health & safety formerly isolated systems now networked decided on combined approach mining industry less risky end of spectrum management accepts moderate or low risk 30

Assets reliability and integrity of SCADA nodes and net integrity of stored file and database information availability, integrity of financial system availability, integrity of procurement system availability, integrity of maintenance/production system availability, integrity and confidentiality of mail services 31

Threats & Vulnerabilities unauthorized modification of control system corruption, theft, loss of info attacks/errors affecting procurement system attacks/errors affecting financial system attacks/errors affecting mail system attacks/errors maintenance/production affecting system 32

Risk Register Asset Reliability and integrity of the SCADA nodes and network Integrity of stored file and database information Availability and integrity of Financial System Availability and integrity of Procurement System Availability and integrity of Maintenance/ Production System Availability, integrity and confidentiality of mail services Threat/ Vulnerability Unauthorized modification of control system Corruption, theft, loss of info Attacks/ errors affecting system Existing Controls layered firewalls & servers firewall, policies Likelihood Consequence Rare Risk Priority Major Level of Risk High Possible Major Extreme 2 firewall, policies Possible Moderate High 3 Attacks/ errors affecting system firewall, policies Possible Moderate High 4 Attacks/ errors affecting system firewall, policies Possible Minor Medium 5 Attacks/ errors affecting system firewall, ext mail gateway Almost Certain Minor High 6 33 1

Summary detailed need to perform risk assessment as part of IT security management process relevant security standards presented risk assessment alternatives detailed risk assessment process involves – – – context including asset identification identify threats, vulnerabilities, risks analyse and evaluate risks Silver Star Mines case study 34

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