EE 369 Power Systems Engineering Lecture 1 Introduction Slides by: Tom
36 Slides2.47 MB
EE 369 Power Systems Engineering Lecture 1 Introduction Slides by: Tom Overbye, University of Illinois With additions by Ross Baldick, University of Texas
Simple Power System Every large-scale power system has three major components: – generation: source of power, ideally with a specified voltage and frequency – load or demand: consumes power; ideally with a constant resistive value – transmission system: transmits power; ideally as a perfect conductor Additional components include: – distribution system: local reticulation of power (may be in place of transmission system in case of microgrid), – control equipment: coordinate supply with load. 2
Complications No ideal voltage sources exist. Loads are seldom constant and are typically not entirely resistive. Transmission system has resistance, inductance, capacitance and flow limitations. Simple system has no redundancy so power system will not work if any component fails. 3
Power Power: – Instantaneous rate of consumption of energy, – How hard you work! Power voltage x current for dc Power Units: Watts amps times volts (W) kW – 1 x 103 Watt MW – 1 x 106 Watt GW – 1 x 109 Watt Installed U.S. generation capacity is about 1000 GW ( about 3 kW per person) Maximum load of Austin about 2500 MW. Maximum load of UT campus about 50 MW. 4
Energy Energy: – Integration of power over time, – Energy is what people really want from a power system, – How much work you accomplish over time. Energy Units: Joule 1 watt-second (J) kWh – kilowatthour (3.6 x 106 J) Btu – 1055 J; 1 MBtu 0.292 MWh U.S. annual electric energy consumption is about 3600 billion kWh (about 13,333 kWh per person, which means 5on average we each use 1.5 kW of power continuously).
Power System Examples Interconnection: can range from quite small, such as an island, to one covering half the continent: – there are four major interconnected ac power systems in North America (five, if you count Alaska), each operating at 60 Hz ac; 50 Hz is used in some other countries. Airplanes and Spaceships: reduction in weight is primary consideration; frequency is 400 Hz. Ships and submarines. Automobiles: dc with 12 volts standard and higher voltages used in electric vehicles. Battery operated portable systems. 6
North America Interconnections 7
Electric Systems in Energy Context Class focuses on electric power systems, but we first need to put the electric system in context of the total energy delivery system. Electricity is used primarily as a means for energy transportation: – Use other (“primary”) sources of energy to create electricity, and electricity is usually converted into another form of energy when used. – Electricity is used by transforming into another form of energy. About 40% of US energy is transported in electric form. 8
Energy sources in US Total primary energy in 2014: About 81% Fossil Fuels Source: EIA Annual Energy Outlook 2014 About 40% of our total energy is consumed in the form of electricity, a percentage that is gradually increasing. The vast majority of the nonfossil fuel energy is electric! In 2013 we got about 3% of our electric energy from wind and 1% from solar (PV and solar thermal): increasing over time, but still small.
Electricity Generation Sources in US 2012 Wind by energy Hydroelectric Coal Nuclear Natural gas Source: EIA 2013
Generation Sources in California 2010 11
Generation Sources in Illinois 2010 12
Generation Sources in Texas 2010: (wind grown to around 10% by 2014) 13
Generation Sources in Texas 2014
Energy Economics Electric generating technologies involve a tradeoff between fixed costs (primarily capital costs to build them) and operating costs: – Nuclear, wind, and solar high fixed costs, but low operating costs, – Natural gas has low fixed costs but relatively high operating costs (dependent upon fuel prices) – Coal in between (although recent low natural gas prices has meant that some coal plants have higher operating costs than some natural gas). Total average costs depend on fixed costs, operating costs, and capacity factor (ratio of average power production to capacity). 15
Ball park operating Costs Nuclear: 10/MWh Coal: 40/MWh (some coal considerably lower) Wind: couple /MWh (maintenance and operating) Hydro: few /MWh (maintenance and operating) Solar: 0/MWh Natural Gas: cost in /MWh is 7 to 20 times fuel cost in /MBtu; for example, with 8/MBtu gas, cost is 56/MWh to 160/MWh; with 5/Mbtu gas, cost is 35/MWh to 100/MWh. Note, to get price in cents/kWh take price in /MWh and divide by 10. 16
Natural Gas Prices – to 2013 17
Natural Gas Prices Source: Energy Information Administration, http://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.cfm?id 7710
Future mix of sources. Likely long-term low costs of gas and advent of greatly increased renewables has already changed the mix in Texas away from coal and towards gas and wind: – Wind already over 10% of electrical energy in Texas, – Coal traditionally in service throughout year, but Texas asset owners may only run some coal in Summer. Expect the trend to continue, especially if the US (eventually) enacts climate change legislation.
Goals of Power System Operation Supply load (users) with electricity at – specified voltage (120 ac volts common for residential), – specified frequency, – at minimum cost consistent with operating constraints, safety, etc. 20
Major Impediments Load is constantly changing: 21 Electricity is not storable (stored by conversion to other forms of energy), Power system is subject to disturbances, such as lightning strikes. Engineering tradeoffs between reliability and cost.
22 Hour of Year 8273 7756 7239 6722 6205 5688 5171 4654 4137 3620 3103 2586 2069 1552 1035 518 1 MW Load Example Yearly Electric Load 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0
Course Syllabus (chapters 1 to 7 and 11) Introduction and review of complex power, phasors & three phase (chapter 2), Transformers and per-unit system (chapter 3), Transmission line parameters (chapter 4), Steady state operation of transmission lines (chapter 5), Power flow analysis (chapter 6), Symmetrical faults (chapter 7), Power system controls (chapter 11), Economic system operation (chapter 11), Optimal power flow (chapter 11), Deregulation and restructuring (throughout semester). 23
Brief History of Electric Power Early 1880’s – Edison introduced Pearl Street dc system in Manhattan supplying 59 customers. 1884 – Sprague produces practical dc motor. 1885 – invention of transformer. Mid 1880’s – Westinghouse/Tesla introduce rival ac system. Late 1880’s – Tesla invents ac induction motor. 1893 – First 3 phase transmission line operating at 2.3 kV. 24
History, cont’d 1896 – ac lines deliver electricity from hydro generation at Niagara Falls to Buffalo, 20 miles away. Early 1900’s – Private utilities supply all customers in area (city); recognized as a “natural monopoly” (cheapest for one firm to produce everything because of “economies of scale”); states step in to begin regulation. By 1920’s – Large interstate holding companies control most electricity systems. 25
History, cont’d 1935 – Congress passes Public Utility Holding Company Act to establish national regulation, breaking up large interstate utilities (repealed 2005). 1935/6 – Rural Electrification Act brought electricity to rural areas. 1930’s – Electric utilities established as vertical monopolies. 26
Vertical Monopolies Within a particular geographic market, the electric utility had an exclusive franchise Generation Transmission Distribution Customer Service 27 In return for this exclusive franchise, the utility had the obligation to serve all existing and future customers at rates determined jointly by utility and regulators It was a “cost plus” business: Charge to retail customers set by regulatory authority to be cost of investment and operations plus regulated return on investment.
Vertical Monopolies Within its service territory each utility was the only game in town. Neighboring utilities functioned more as colleagues than competitors. Utilities gradually interconnected their systems so by 1970 transmission lines crisscrossed North America, with voltages up to 765 kV. Economies of scale (bigger is cheaper per unit capacity) coupled with growth in demand resulted in decreasing average costs. Decreasing average costs together with strongly increasing demand implied decreasing real prices to end-use customers over time. 28
History, cont’d -- 1970’s 1970’s brought inflation, stagnation of demand growth, increased fossil-fuel prices, calls for conservation and growing environmental concerns. Increasing prices replaced decreasing ones. In that context, U.S. Congress passed Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) in 1978, which mandated utilities must purchase power from independent generators located in their service territory (modified 2005). PURPA introduced some competition. 29
History, cont’d – 1990’s & 2000’s Major opening of industry to competition occurred as a result of National Energy Policy Act of 1992. This act mandated that utilities provide “nondiscriminatory” access to the high voltage transmission. Goal was to set up true competition in generation. Texas followed suit in 1996 and 1999. Result over the last few years has been a dramatic restructuring of electric utility industry (for better or worse!) Energy Bill 2005 repealed PUHCA; modified PURPA. 30
Utility Restructuring Driven by significant regional variations in electric rates, reflecting variations in generation stock and endowments of natural resources. Goal of competition is to reduce prices and increase efficiency: – (in short term) through the introduction of competition, and – (in long term) competition’s incentives for technological innovation. Allow consumers to choose their electricity supplier. 31
State Variation in Retail Electricity Prices 32
Customer Choice 33
The Result for California in 2000/1 OFF OFF 34
The California-Enron Effect WA MT ND MN OR ID SD WY NV WI CA AZ CO PA IL KS OK NM MO AR IN OH KY W VA VA NH MA RI CT NJ DE DC MD NC TN SC MS AL TX NY MI IA NE UT VT ME GA LA AK FL HI 35 electricity restructuring delayed restructuring Source : http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/chg str/regmap.html no activity suspended restructuring
August 14 , 2003 Blackout th 36