General Laboratory Safety Training Presented by Martina Schmeling

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General Laboratory Safety Training Presented by Martina Schmeling Adapted from UC Davis

Staying safe means that you Read labels on containers of chemicals Read Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Handle chemicals with care Use correct protective clothing and equipment Remember emergency procedures

Chemical Labels Every container of chemicals is labeled by the manufacturer. The label will tell you – Name of chemical – Name, address and emergency phone number of manufacturer – Physical and health hazards – Precautionary measures – First-aid instructions – Proper handling/storage instructions

Health Hazards on a Chemical Label Carcinogen Highly toxic agent Toxic agent Reproductive hazard Irritant Corrosive Sensitizer Hepatotoxin Nephrotoxin Neurotoxin

Typical Precautionary Measures on a Label Do not breathe vapors Use in well-ventilated areas Keep container closed when not in use Avoid contact with skin Wash thoroughly with soap and water after handling

Keep away from sparks, heat, and flame Do not store near combustible materials Store in tightly closed container Remove and wash contaminated clothing promptly Keep from contact with clothing and other combustible materials

Common Signal Words on Labels Danger – Can cause immediate serious injury or death Warning – Can cause potentially serious injury or death Caution – Can cause potentially moderate injury

Special Symbols Used on Labels Helps you recognize kind of hazard a chemical could present if you are not careful – Toxicity – Corrosivity (acids and bases) – Ignitability (flammable solvents and certain solids) – Reactivity (sodium and various waterreactive reagents)

Color and Number Coded Label Systems NFPA-type label 3 4 2 Colors represent kind of hazard Red fire Yellow instability Blue health black specific hazard & personal protection Numbers show degree of hazard 0 Minimal 1 Slight 2 Moderate 3 Serious 4 Severe

Color and Number Coded Label Systems NFPA-type labels Black specific hazard OX Oxidizer ACID Acid 3 4 2 COR ALK Alkali COR Corrosive W Use no water Other symbols:

Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Provides more detailed information about a chemical, including – Composition, information on ingredients (Section 2) – Hazards identification (Section 3) – First aid measures (Section 4) – Accidental Release measures (Section 6) – Handling and Storage (Section 7) – Exposure controls, personal protection (Section 8) – Stability and reactivity (Section 10) – Toxicological information (Section 11)

MSDS (cont’d) Hazards Identification – Inhalation: Respiratory tract (lungs) through inhalation – Ingestion: Digestive tract through eating or smoking with contaminated hands or in contaminated work areas – Absorption through the skin or eyes: Dermatitis or damage to the liver, kidney, or other organ systems – Injection: Percutaneous injection of a toxic substance through the skin

MSDS (cont’d) Specific possible health hazards: – Acute poisoning (rapid assimilation of substance, i.e., carbon monoxide) – Chronic poisoning (prolonged exposure, i.e., lead poisoning) – Cumulative poisons (numerous chronic exposures, i.e., heavy metals) – Substances in combination (synergistic effect, i.e., exposure to alcohol and chlorinated solvents)

MSDS (cont’d) Potential Health Effects – Eye irritation – Nausea – Dizziness – Skin rashes – Headache – Existing medical conditions possibly aggravated by exposure

MSDS (cont’d) Emergency/first-aid procedures to follow Accidental Release Measures What to do if substance spills and leaks How to correctly dispose of substance Equipment/procedures for cleaning up spills and leaks

MSDS (cont’d) Handling and Storage – How to handle and store substance safely – Any other precautions (i.e., grounding containers during transfer of flammables)

MSDS (cont’d) Exposure Controls, Personal Protection Respirator Gloves Eye protection Protective clothing Ventilation Special work and hygiene practices that should be followed

MSDS (cont’d) Exposure Limits Threshold Limit Value (TLV) TLV-C TLV-STEL TLV-TWA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL)

MSDS (cont’d) Toxicological Information LC50: median lethal concentration by inhalation in a single exposure over a specified time period LCLO: lowest reported LC50 LD50: median lethal concentration by a route other than inhalation

So, what is “highly toxic”? “Highly Toxic” is indicated by – LD50 50 mg/kg body wt by ingestion to albino rats each weighing between 200 to 300 gms OR – LD50 200 mg/kg by continuous contact for 24 hrs with skin of albino rabbits each weighing between 2 and 3 kg OR – LC50 200 ppm of gas or vapor inhalation (or 2 mg/L of mist, dust, or fumes) for one hour by albino rats each weighing between 200 to 300 gms

How can an MSDS be “Decoded”? See the glossary produced by CCOHS

Handle Chemicals with Care – Dispose of chemicals, broken glass, and other waste in approved containers – Clean up broken glass and spills immediately – Keep the lab clean and neat – Store incompatible chemicals in separate storage areas

Chemical Storage Labs have established separate storage areas for Flammable and combustible organic liquids and solvents Acids Dry poisons, salts, and oxidizers Bases Chemicals are stored in Chemical storage cabinets Flammable storage refrigerators (No food) Chemical storage refrigerators/freezers (No food) On shelves with retaining barriers

Storage Fundamentals Identify incompatible chemicals – check the Material Safety Data Sheet Isolate and separate incompatible materials – Isolate by storing in another area or room – Degree of isolation depends on quantities, chemical properties and packaging – Separate by storing in same area or room, but apart from each other

Storage of Flammable and Combustible Liquids Storage must not limit the use of exits, stairways, or areas normally used for the safe regress of people Storage must be in: closed metal containers inside a storage cabinet, or safety cans, or an inside storage room Inside storage room

Storage Cabinets Not more than 60 gal of Class I and/or Class II liquids, or not more than 120 gal of Class III liquids permitted in a cabinet Must be conspicuously labeled, “Flammable - Keep Fire Away” Doors on metal cabinets must have a three-point lock (top, side, and bottom), and the door sill must be raised at least 2 inches above the bottom of the cabinet

Use correct protective clothing and equipment Eye Protection Safety glasses – flying particles, chemical splashes, dust Splash goggles – corrosive liquids, solvents, powders Face Shields – high pressure systems Respiratory Protection – normally not needed at LUC Skin and Body Protection Gloves – see the MSDS Aprons and lab coats – strong acids and bases Shoes – always worn in lab, closed toe and closed heel Hearing Protection – normally not needed at LUC

Do not – Use damaged glassware – Store chemicals near heat, sunlight, or other substances with which they might react – Store materials on floors or other places where people could trip over them – Leave equipment unattended when its operating (unless it is designed to do so or you have an SOP) – Put custodians and fellow workers in danger

If Overexposed to a Hazardous Substance Get medical help immediately! Inform your lab supervisor Check MSDS for first-aid instructions. Some general guidelines are Eyes: Flush with water for 15 minutes Ingestion: Follow label and MSDS instructions Skin Contact: Stand under emergency shower and remove contaminated clothing immediately Inhalation: Get to fresh air and get prompt medical attention

Other Emergency Procedures Fire: call 911, activate building fire alarm; safely use fire extinguisher on small fires Hazardous Chemical spill (over 1 pint): evacuate the room; close door; call 911; consider evacuation of building

Emergencies can happen, so Avoid working alone in the lab Know where emergency phone numbers are posted Review MSDS Know where to go and what to do in an emergency Know the location of the closest safety showers, eyewashes, and fire extinguishers

Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) Outlines specific work practices for all work involving hazardous substances in the lab Gives procedures to follow when working with hazardous chemicals Provides details on how your chemical exposure will be monitored and limited Assures that you have the right personal protective equipment (PPE) Specifies that some hazardous tasks to be approved in advance by the PI

Useful and helpful websites regarding safety: information .shtml http: / / MSDS/

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