NOMENCLATURE C2.4 Organic Compounds
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NOMENCLATURE C2.4 Organic Compounds
NAMING COMPOUNDS There is a specifi c system used for naming organic compounds. It was developed by the International Union of Pure & Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) Universal language used around the world
NAMING COMPOUNDS To name a compound, it is vital to fi rst know what homologous series it belongs to. A homologous series is a series of compounds with the same functional group. (a functional group is the reactive part of the molecule that aff ects the compounds chemistry) As well as having the same functional group, all homologous series: Can be represented by a general formula Differ from their neighbour by CH 2 Have physical properties that vary as the M r of the compound varies
NAMING COMPOUNDS The key homologous series you need to be aware of for this unit are: Alkanes Alkenes Halogenoalkanes Alcohols Carboxylic acids The functional group helps to provide the prefi x or suffi x of the compound name.
NAMING COMPOUNDS You also need to be able to identify the longest carbon chain in a compound – this provides the ‘root’ of the compound name. You have touched on this with the alkanes at GCSE – methane, pentane, ethane etc.
KNOWLEDGE CHECK Copy and complete the tables, use the internet for help if you are stuck. 1 Homolog ous series 2 Alkanes 3 Alkenes No. of carbons 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Root of name Alcohols Carboxylic acid Haloalkane Prefix or suffix Example
KNOWLEDGE CHECK Copy and complete the tables, use the internet for help if you are stuck. Homolog ous series Prefix or suffix Eth- Alkanes -ane 3 Prop- Alkenes -ene 4 But- Alcohols -ol 5 Pent- -oic acid 6 Hex- Carboxylic acid 7 Hept- 8 Oct- 9 Non- 10 Dec- No. of carbons Root of name 1 Meth- 2 Haloalkane Chloro-, Bromo-, Iodo- Example
FUNCTIONAL GROUPS The priority order of functional groups is important. The higher priority group is typically numbered as the lowest number. 1. Carboxylic acid 2. Alcohol 3. Alkene 4. Haloalkane 5. Alkane
GENERAL RULES 1. Find the longest carbon chain – this is the basis of the name (eth, meth, pent etc). 2. Number the C atoms in the chain, giving the end that has any side chains or functional groups the smallest numbers possible. 3. If there is more than one side chain or substituted group the same, use the prefi xes di for 2, tri for 3 or tetra for 4. 4. Side chains should be listed in alphabetical order. 5. A –CH 3 group is called methyl, a C 2 H 5 group is called ethyl, etc. 6. The functional group then provides the suffi x or prefi x of the name e.g –ol for alcohols, -ane for alkanes etc.
GENERAL RULES A couple of other things to note: Numbers should be separated from names with a HYPHEN E.g 2-methylheptane Numbers are separated from each other with COMMAS E.g. 2,3-dimethylbutane
NAMING ALKANES Worked examples: CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH3 Pentane Pentane CH3 CH3 CH2 CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH CH3 CH3 CH CH2 CH3 2CH3 methylhexane 3methylpentane CH3 CH2 CH3 CH2 CH CH CH3 3,4-
NAMING ALKANES Knowledge check: Draw the following alkanes Butane 2-methylbutane 2,2-dimethylheptane
NAMING ALKENES Naming alkenes follows the same rules as before To show where the double bond is, however, you number the chain from the end closest to the double bond and then put the corresponding number before the –ene in the name e.g. but-2-ene. If there is more than one double bond, use the prefi xes di-, tri-, tetra- .
NAMING ALKENES CH 2 CH 2 Ethene CH 3 -CH CH-CH 2 CH(CH 3 )CH 3 5-methylhex-2- ene CH 3 -CH 2 -CH CH 2 But-1-ene CH 3 -CH CH-CH CH-CH 3 CH 3 -CH CH-CH CH 2 pent – 1,3 diene hex - 2,4 diene
NAMING ALKANES Knowledge check: Draw the following alkanes Pent-1-ene 3-methylbut-2-ene Pent-1,4-diene
NAMING HALOALKANES Same rules used as before, but you need to add a prefi x before the name of the alkane to state which halogen is present. E.g bromo You should include the position of the halogen using the numbering system as before. If there is more than one halogen, list them in alphabetical order.
NAMING HALOALKANES Draw the displayed formula for the following compounds and have a go at naming them. 1. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 Cl 2. CH 3 CHClCH 3 3. CH 2 ClCHClCH 3 4. CH 3 CBr(CH 3 )CH 3
NAMING HALOALKANES Draw the displayed formula for the following compounds and have a go at naming them. 1. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 Cl – 1-chloropropane 2. CH 3 CHClCH 3 – 2-chloropropane 3. CH 2 ClCHClCH 3 – 1,2-dichloropropane 4. CH 3 CBr(CH 3 )CH 3 – 2-bromo-2methylpropane
NAMING ALCOHOLS & CARBOXYLIC ACIDS Alcohols use the same rules as before. Numbers indicate where on the chain the OH group is situated. E.g pentan-1-ol, butan-2-ol Carboxylic acids will never need a number as the COOH group will always be found on the end of the chain. You simply count the number of carbons like you would an alcohol and add –oic acid to the end of the name.
KNOWLEDGE CHECK Nomenclature 1 should take around 15 minutes then we will mark it.
KNOWLEDGE CHECK Practice really does make perfect: Nomenclature 2 should take around 1015 minutes then we will double check it together.