Persuasion & Influence Presentation by Steve Edison November

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Persuasion & Influence Presentation by Steve Edison November , 2008 Thanks to Drs. Cialdini, Palmarini, Heath, Fisk & Taylor, Berns

Overview Steve Edison--Director of Center for Professional Selling 30 years as Sales/Marketing Executive BS Mathematics MBA Ph.D. Marketing Research: psychological factors leading to strategy/decision-making; information processing style

What Is This Session About? Introduction Topic overview (sales perspective) The presentation in three parts – Mind Tunnels (Inevitable Illusions—Palmarini, with a sprinkle of Iconoclast, by Berns) – Weapons of Influence ( Influence--Cialdini) – Carving stone (Making it Stick, Heath & Heath) I recommend these books wholeheartedly! Find these notes and more:

Persuasion An attempt to change attitudes or behaviors (or both) without using coercion or deception.

Argumentation vs Persuasion Argumentation – Presenting facts and data in logically sound ways in order to help someone to change his/her belief or behavior Persuasion – A delicate mix of . Rational argument Social forces Psychological forces

Influence Strategies Arm-Twisting Legislation Coercion Subterfuge Circumvention of awareness Promotion Persuasion Facilitation

This is Your Brain on a Budget! 40 watts

This is Your Brain on a Budget! The average adult brain has a energy budget of 40 watts ( /- 3 watts) For millenia, the world has become increasingly complex The brain is thought to have evolved, specializing in key processes Keeping the budget in mind, shortcuts are common

Mind Tunnels Information in some parts of the brain are inaccessible to other parts of the brain Applies to judgments, decision-making, and attitude adjustment Facets of the general population Less-Than-Rational Mental equivalents of visual illusions

How Many Black Dots vs White Dots?

Conversely, we may be forced to use inappropriate information Stroop Effect

Mind Tunnels Framing/Priming - Don’t think of an elephant! Anchoring - Forecasts of new products start with historical data 200,000 345,000 789,000 35 100,000 Overconfidence - We start with the assumption that we are right Illusory Correlation - We see what we expect to see Predictability in hindsight - Hindsight bias: the tendency to overestimate the predictability of past events based on current knowledge of the outcome Ease of representation - When questions change behavior 999

Persuasion Weapons of Influence

I. Social Psychology 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Reciprocity Consistency Social proof Authority Likeability Scarcity Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)

1. Reciprocity One of the most potent weapons of influence and compliance: We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us Cialdini

1. Reciprocity Technique 1: If someone makes a concession, we are obligated to respond with a concession Making a concession gives the other party a feeling of responsibility for the outcome and greater satisfaction with resolution Cialdini

1. Reciprocity Technique 2: Rejection then retreat: exaggerated request rejected, desired lesser request acceded to Cialdini

1. Reciprocity Technique 3: Contrast principle: sell the costly item first; or present the undesirable option first Cialdini

2. Consistency Our nearly obsessive desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done Consistency is usually associated with strength, inconsistency as weak; we want to look virtuous Cialdini

2. Consistency Technique 1: Elicit a commitment, then expect consistency Cialdini

2. Consistency Technique 2: Public, active, effortful commitments tend to be lasting commitments Cialdini

2. Consistency Technique 3: Get a large favor by first getting a small one (small commitments begin to shape a person’s self-image and position them for large commitment) Cialdini

2. Consistency Outcome 1: Commitments people own, take inner responsibility for, are profound Outcome 2: Commitments lead to inner change and grow their own legs Cialdini

3. Social Proof One means we use to determine what is correct is to find out what other people think is correct. The greater number of people who find an idea correct, the more the idea will be correct. Pluralistic ignorance: each person decides that since nobody is concerned, nothing is wrong Similarity: social proof operates most powerfully when we observe people just like us Cialdini

Consensus & Group Think

Consensus & Group Think POWER IN NUMBERS

4. Authority We have a deep-seated sense of duty to authority Tests demonstrate that adults will do extreme things when instructed to do so by an authority figure Cialdini

Milgram, 1961: Looking for a Nazi and He Found.

4. Authority Titles Uniforms Clothes Trappings of status Cialdini

5. Likeability We prefer to say yes to someone we know and like Cialdini

6. Scarcity Opportunities seem more valuable to us when their availability is limited We want it even more when we are in competition for it Condos in Manhattan about doubled in 2007 Helium prices are through the roof! Diamonds are managed for price maintenance Cialdini

Carving Stone Persuasive Communication Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die

Kairos Windows of Opportunity When you are in a good mood When your world view no longer makes sense When you can take action immediately When you feel indebted because of a favor Immediately after you have made a mistake Immediately after you have denied a request

Some Ideas Naturally Stick Urban Legends – HIV and theater seats Proverbs (where there is smoke .) A few professors lectures ? Politicians’ sound bites (A chicken in every pot) Preachers pronouncements (fire and brimstone) Activists (global warming, Don’t mess with Texas)

Making an Idea Stick 1. Simplicity (any idea over one is too many) 2. Unexpectedness (a surprise grabs our attention) 3. Concreteness (the more dimensions of details the more hooks our minds use to create a memory) 4. Credibility (even untrue stories don't stick unless there's a hint of truth, the urban legend) 5. Incite Emotions (emotional experiences; individuals; things that reflect our identities) 6. Messages in Stories (memorable and meaningful in a story form )

Making an Idea Stick Simplicity Find the essential core of the idea Simple AND profound -proverbs Relentlessly prioritize Example: “The Golden Rule” Or, most anything from Apple:

Making an idea Stick-Unexpectedness Violate expectations.Be counter-intuitive “Gap theory”---perceived hole in our knowledge Surprise leads to increased alertness and focus But, is short-lived need to continually surprise

Making an idea Stick Concreteness Only way to ensure that all receive same message Our brains are wired to remember concrete info Proverbs are abstract truths encoded in concrete language Heifer International

Making an idea Stick Emotions Make people “Feel” something LBJ’s “Daisy Girl” aired September 1964 “These are the stakes! To make a world in which all of God’s children can live, or to go into the dark. We must either love each other, or we must die.”

Making an idea Stick Story Stories are flight simulators for the brain Subway’s Jared vs “7 under 6” Mean Joe Green

The Communication Framework For an idea to stick, for it to be useful and lasting, it’s got to make the audience: – Pay attention – Understand and remember – Agree/believe – Care – Be able to act

The Communication Framework For an idea to stick, for it to be useful and lasting, it’s got to make the audience: – Pay attention Unexpected – Understand and remember – Agree/believe – Care – Be able to act Concrete Credible Emotional Story

So, What’s the Moral? Logic doesn’t always persuade Humans are susceptible to illusory thinking Having influence in the short term can yield long-term persuasion and Compliance Professionals have an influence tool kit

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