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Bringing men together “Transport of the mails, transport of the human voice, transport of flickering pictures - in this century as in others, our highest accomplishments still have the single aim of bringing men together.” [Antoine de SaintExupéry, French aviator and writer (1900 - 1944)]

Technological innovation Technological innovation is essential for human development. From the printing press to the computer, people have devised tools for facilitating learning and communication. Technology is not inherently good or bad, the outcome depends on how it is used.

Information and communications technology Information and communications technology (ICT) involves innovations in: microelectronics, computing (hardware and software), telecom-munications and opto-electronics micro-processors, semiconductors, fibre optics. These innovations enable processing and storage of enormous amounts of information, plus rapid distribution of information through communication networks.

The ICT domain

The role of ICT Information and communication technology is a basic infrastructure necessary for economic and social development of a country. This is even more so as information related economic activities are growing. Information and communication technology support the central nervous system of complex societies, transmitting and processing information and commands among the various parts of such societies. Internet plays a fundamental function in ICT role

Benefits from ICT Benefits from ICT could be obtained in: Education Job training Health care Food security Environment management Government efficiency Specifically in Science and Technology because: *Speed-up dissemination of scientific results worldwide through scientific knowledge sharing and exchange * Allows to set up of Virtual Labs for communications and remote instrument control

Rapid evolution of ICT Predictions indicate: doubling of computing power every 18 –24 months doubling of communications power every 6 months huge reductions in costs massive increases in speed and quantity. quantity In 2001 more information was sent over a single cable in a second than in 1997 was sent over the entire Internet in a month. month

Growth of Computer Use

Trends of ICT

The economic impact of ICT (1)

The economic impact of ICT (2)

Internet growth in developing and emerging countries

The digital divide Uneven distribution of Internet users in the world. Limitations in developing countries are due to: outdated public telephone network arbitrary high cost of the services. To beat the problem: Solutions based on the most advanced techniques with accessible costs. Radio technology represents in many cases the solution.

The Internet users distribution

ICT and collaborative research and innovation Research and innovation is increasingly collaborative between institutions and countries thank to ICT. From 1995 –97, scientists in the United States coauthored articles with scientists from 173 other countries; scientists in Brazil with 114, in Kenya with 81, in Algeria 59

A Premise for Action at the Abdus Salam ICTP The growth of the ICT poses the challenge of providing developing countries with an adequate way to be linked with the rest of the world to avoid the risk of being cut out from main stream of information flow. The academic community is the obvious starting point for these efforts that will permeate to the rest of society. It is recognized that the underlying problem is the lack of sufficient well qualified human resources able to handle the new systems and technologies.

The action at the Centre To contribute to the expansion of ICT in developing countries the Abdus Salam ICTP : Carried out Intensive Training Activities for scientists from developing countries Established a Programme of Training and System Development on Networking and Radiocommunications with the collaboration of the United Nations University. Both radio technology and computer networking have been used to facilitate the access of ICT to academic institutions in developing countries.

Why radio technology? Radio represents a powerful tool to leap-frog the communication technology gap between developed and developing world.

Training Activities (milestones) 1989 -1st College on Theoretical and Experimental Radiopropagation Physics ( first of a series of biannual Colleges on the same topic) 1991-2nd College on Theoretical and Experimental Radiopropagation 1991 Physics ( with scientific and financial support from URSI) 1993-3rd College on Theoretical and Experimental Radiopropagation 1993 Physics ( first with financial support from URSI and ITU/BDT) 1993 to 19961996 Activities cosponsored with ITU/BDT 19971997 ICTP-URSI-ITU/BDT Workshop on the use of Radio for digital communications in developing countries 19981998 1st ICTP-URSI-ITU/BDT School on the use of Radio for digital communications in developing countries ( its 5th yearly edition in 2002)

The new Programme Objective of the Programme of Training and System Development on Networking and Radiocommunications : To provide technical assistance and training to academic and scientific institutions in developing countries requesting: help to establish small area computer networks and their connection to the Internet

Main Projects in Africa (1) 1. Pilot project: computer network for education and research at the Obafemi Awolowo University of Ile-Ife, Nigeria with the use of spread spectrum radio technology.Successfully completed by June 1996, 2. Intensive Training, in Trieste, with support of the World Bank, of 26 academic network managers and 16 network engineers representing 26 Nigerian Universities, December 1996. 3. Follow up training activity for the NUNet of Nigeria in Ile-Ife and Abuja, Nigeria, 6 - 27 October 1997. Staff from all the 40 Nigerian Universities were trained in computer networking with the use of radio links.

Main Projects in Africa (2) 4. Workshop on the use of Radio for Computer Networking at the University of Cape Coast, Ghana, 31 August - 11 September 1998. Supported also by the United Nations University (UNU) , the University of Cape Coast (UCC), and other local organisations. A basic Radiocommunications Training Laboratory has been implemented at the University of Cape Coast for this purpose. 5. Training Activity on Networking and Radiocommunications in Trieste,14 September- 4 December 1998,supported also by the United Nations University . Participants were 14 scientists from Nigeria (7), Morocco (3), Angola (1), Senegal (1), Cote d’Ivoire (1), Romania (1).

Projects in Romania 1. Pilot project for the establishment of a full Internet Connectivity between the National Institute for Material Physics located at the Magurele Physics Platform and the node of the Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Romania , successfully carried out during July 1997. 2. Seminar on Networking and Radiocommunication carried out in Bucharest,Romania, 13-17 December 1999, co-Organized with the University of Bucharest (CREDIS) and financed by the World Bank, followed by new seminars in 2000 and 2001.

About our efforts in Romania “In Romanian academic environment, the ICTP seminaries on networking and radio-propagation had a powerful impact, due to the traditional connections established between ICTP and the institutes from Magurele Platform of Physics. More researchers from different institutes participated to different ICTP seminaries. The “Abdus Salam ICTP Programme of Training and System Development on Networking and Radiocommunications” was highly appreciated as an important source of expertise, offering multiple solutions in technological domains as telecommunications and information technology, with high potential to reduce the gap between the communication infrastructures of developed and developing countries.” From a Report by Dr. Andrei Ioachim, Romanian National Institute for Physics of Materials (NIPM), January 2003

Other activities Since 2000 the group has been involved in Training Activities and Technical Assistance in the use of radio for computer networking in Benin, Benin Peru, Peru Sudan and Venezuela. Venezuela The group created also the S&T Collaborium Initiative.

Thank you for your attention

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