SAMHSA Expert Panel on Best Practices in Statewide Real-time Crisis

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SAMHSA Expert Panel on Best Practices in Statewide Real-time Crisis Bed Databases David Morrissette, PhD, LCSW Captain, US Public Health Service Office of the Chief Medical Officer Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Debra A. Pinals, MD Medical Director, Behavioral Health and Forensic Programs Michigan Department of Health and Human Services Clinical Professor of Psychiatry Director, Program in Psychiatry, Law and Ethics University of Michigan NASMHPD Commissioners Meeting July 29, 2018 [Draft – 072518]

Disclaimer The views, opinions, and content expressed in this presentation do not necessarily reflect the views, opinions, or policies of the Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS), the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). 2

Section 9007 of the 21st Century CURES Act 21 Century CURES Act st 3 Realtime database of beds at inpatient psychiatric facilities, crisis stabilization units, and residential community mental health and residential substance use disorder treatment facilities . for adults and children

Interdepartmental Serious Mental Illness Coordinating Committee Recommendations 2.2 Develop a continuum of care that includes adequate psychiatric bed capacity and community based alternatives to hospitalization. 3.1.g. Psychiatric crisis response using least-restrictive appropriate settings eliminating “psychiatric boarding” in hospital emergency departments; 4

Crisis Services Continuum Slide 5

Expert Panel Objectives 1. To examine the experiences of states and MCOs that have implemented bed registries. 2. To identify the practical aspects of an effective registry. 3. To examine the policy challenges which must be resolved for a registry to be effective. 6

Expert Panelists Panelists represented a variety of stakeholders: – State mental health authorities – State health authorities – Managed care organizations – Hospital systems – Crisis service providers – Family members – Individuals with lived experience 7

SAMHSA Expert Panel on Best Practices in Statewide Real-time Crisis Bed Databases Seemingly Simple, but with Challenges to Overcome 8

Challenge 1: Stakeholders are invested in the existing process and distrustful of changes. Use the SMHA’s role as a convener to conduct an analysis of the current system operation. – Question to stakeholders: How can a database improve the system operations for all users? 9

Challenge 1: Stakeholders are invested in the existing process and distrustful of changes. (2) Stakeholders SMHA State Medicaid Office State Health Authority Attorney General Families People with lived experience Police and EMS 10 Emergency departments General hospital inpatient units Receiving hospitals Crisis services providers Managed care organizations NAMI/MHA State hospital association

Challenge 2: Databases do not have a value in and of themselves. Value proposition for databases. – Increased accountability across the system and hierarchically – Better utilization of existing services. – Identification of mismatches between service needs and service capacities. 11

Challenge 3: Relying on the database alone to make placements. Even though registries are automated, placements are always hands-on. – Complex cases will remain complex. – Receiving facilities may assert right to refuse individual cases 12

Challenge 4: Inadequate resolution of policy issues affects overall buy-in into the database. Navigating policy issues around EMTALA and the IMD exclusion – Requires partnerships among state agencies State Medicaid Office and Attorney General are essential partners on addressing policy issues. – Transparency with stakeholders and organizations feeding data into the database 13

SAMHSA Expert Panel on Best Practices in Statewide Real-time Crisis Bed Databases How Should a State Proceed 14

1. Inventory Existing Services and Systems State mental health commissioner can serve as a convener to the process. 15 Inventory of state and local crisis systems – Call centers – Mobile and static crisis responses – Crisis stabilization – Community respite or residential – Inpatient – Specialized inpatient

2. Develop a Description of the Existing System Georgia System Description * Private Hospital beds are purchased by DBHDD for uninsured individuals when a crisis bed is not available. 16 Source: J. Quesenberry/W. Farmer (2018)

3. Design a Database The database should be designed with two goals in mind: – To reflect the system that exists and – With an eye towards the system you want 17

4. Engage Stakeholders What are the benefits of a realtime electronic system for all stakeholders? Improving access to and use of most appropriate care Reducing wait times Reducing reliance on most expensive care Providing reliable data on utilization 18

5. Incentivize Participation in the Registry Market to providers and hospitals that will feed data into the database. – Supply providers/hospitals with data which is meaningful to them. Use the database as a tool to improve the system as opposed to an enforcement mechanism. MCOs can more easily build incentives and disincentives in a database. 19

6. “Real Time” Must be Useful to Users Few databases are realtime in that availability data are refreshed as beds become available or beds are filled. However, limited daily refreshes are a threat to long-term utility of the database. 20 “Real time” must be operationalized for each registry. – Virginia: Revised statute requires the database be updated as the bed becomes available. – Georgia: Providers must update the database when a discharge date is set.

7. Transparency and Quality Data-Sharing Transparency increases accountability across the system. Transparent to whom? – – – – Hospitals Service providers Managed care organizations Families and people in need of services? Public-facing vs. Provider-facing levels of access 21 Data-sharing of protected health information. – Improves value of the system for providers and hospitals who can make a determination as to whether the person in need of treatment matches the level of care they can provide.

8. High-Level Decision-Maker Oversees Registry Role – Oversight/accountability – Ensure long-term utility of the database – Monitor for patterns of cherry-picking – Examine utilization and bed capacity data to determine where need exists within the system for particular levels of care 22

9. Engage the State Medicaid Office in the Process The four key stakeholders at the state-level are the – – – – 23 SMHA State Health Authority State Medicaid Office Attorney General The State Medicaid Office needs to have a seat at the table. – Many of the policy-level issues required SMO leadership. EMTALA IMD exclusion Medicaid billing on more than one procedure per day

SAMHSA Expert Panel on Best Practices in Statewide Real-time Crisis Bed Databases Discussion 24

Discussion Is there interest in your state to establish an electronic database of real time (no lag time in identified openings) crisis response bed registry? Does your state have a vision for a crisis system that minimizes the use of inpatient beds and maximizes the use of community resources? Does your state have a inventory of local and state crisis response systems? What are the incentives for hospitals and state systems to maintain the status quo? 25

Discussion (2) Are there existing stakeholder organizations that can be convened? Are there contract mechanisms to build alternative incentives for real time systems such as MCOs? What incentives exist in your state to implement a registry save money or use resources more efficiently? What opportunities do you see in your state to create a system? 26

Thank You SAMHSA’s mission is to reduce the impact of substance abuse and mental illness on America’s communities. David Morrissette: [email protected] Debra Pinals: [email protected] 1-877-SAMHSA-7 (1-877-726-4727) 1-800-487-4889 (TDD) 27

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